Travel consumes us, just as we consume the material and philosophical artefacts of the destinations of our desire. We bump onto foreign soil and commence imbibing difference with all senses, some more pleasant than others. We eagerly osmose saturated blue skies, reluctantly inhale the sourness of theÂ unwashed on the train, and happily let the sweet and salty depths of jamÃ³n melt on our tongueâ€¦
Stuart and I have spent our entire shared life consuming culture, learning our way into other lands by eating churros in Madrid, gazing at Rembrandts in Paris and listening to sitars in Varanasi, reading Machiavelli and Balzac in the Tuileries, and ambling through centuries of Gothic flying buttresses and villages and cities planned and unplanned for habitation. 20 years ago we would read all the relevant novels we could lay hands on before traveling to a new country, and I would commence reading recipes and trying them out on family and friends even before our adventures, only to come home and improve on those dishes after having tasted their distinctions in situ.
So engrossed was/am I with understanding the ways in which we consume culture in pursuit of connectedness, and of a cosmopolitan ethic, that I spent eight years working towards a PhD on the topic, the formal study of which Iâ€™ve since abandoned, though it remains a lifelong preoccupation.
Since before becoming a farmer, my interest in consumption logically shifted to a more primary concern with production, ipso facto consumptionâ€™s supplier. Our recent trip to Spain, the home of jamÃ³n ibÃ©rico, exemplified this, as we searched for the roots of jamÃ³n, not just the taste. Iâ€™ll write more about our findings on jamÃ³n in a later post, as here Iâ€™d like to share my thoughts on our other observations throughout Spain.
We spent a scant 18 hours in Madrid, and in that time noted:
- carnicerÃas are everywhere in the centre with ceilings and walls lined with jamÃ³n,
- thereâ€™s a bottle of Spanish olive oil on nearly every table,
- Spanish olives are standard on tapas menus, but the quality is anything but standardised,
- the smoky spice of pimentÃ³n is as distinctive to Spanish cuisine as jamÃ³n.
Where and under what conditions is all this produce grown?
As we dashed south out of Madrid in the motorhome we dubbed the Slothvan (unfair really as it was quite speedy on the autovÃa but lumbered around curves in a not-unpleasing sloth-like fashion), we couldnâ€™t help but be struck by the endless monocultures of olives, seemingly Spainâ€™s equivalence to the central valley of Californiaâ€™s almond groves without the obvious ecological disaster of irrigating a thirsty tree in a drought-prone land. There were rarely water pipes in sight, but also absolutely nothing but olive trees for hundreds of kilometres â€“ no grass between the rows, no shrubs â€“ just thousands and perhaps millions of trees dotting the rocky soils.
I wondered who owns these orchards and just how big are they? What impact of the growth of Spainâ€™s olive oil industry has there been on the land and local communities (let alone the Italian and Greek industries?) Surely the consequences are the same as anywhere agriculture scales up and smallholdings are lost â€“ more chemical inputs in the name of efficiency and yield, subsequent land degradation, and reduced employment for rural communities who once relied on the viability of many small-scale farmsâ€¦ though a quick bit of internet research reveals that while Spainâ€™s olive orchards are on average bigger than their neighboursâ€™, they are still relatively small by Australian or American standards at 5.3ha (compared with just 1.3ha in Italy!). According to what I read though, lack of control of the value chain keeps the farmers from prospering, just as it does worldwide (the FAO has an entire workstream dedicated to connecting smallholders to value chains).
Dotted amongst the olive groves are huge solar and wind farms â€“ in a dry, rocky land, the Spanish are very wisely harvesting the natural resources of which they have plenty â€“ sun and wind. Something I read when we visited the windmills made famous by Cervantesâ€™ madly tilting Don Quixote suggested the locals worked out a long time ago to harness these resources as their only reliablemainstays â€“ if only Australian policymakers were so wise.
As we rolled into the steep slopes of the southern tip of AndalucÃa, the olive groves shrank and seemed to welcome the presence of other species â€“ aberrant oaks and life-giving figs poked up amongst the olives with an appealing diversity after so many homogeneous kilometres. Even grass is allowed between rows in many of the smaller farms, surely a welcome cover for hungry soils under the harsh Spanish sun.
It got me reflecting back on the abundance of Spanish olive oil available throughout the country (and indeed, in Australia and elsewhere) and wondering where the artisanal local oils are to be found? You know, that whole â€˜just because itâ€™s local doesnâ€™t mean itâ€™s goodâ€™. For example, the region in which we live in Victoria has an abundance of potatoes, most of them grown in big monocultures and sprayed regularly â€“ not what Iâ€™d prefer to feed my familyâ€¦ (fortunately it is easy where we live to access the organic and chemical-free potatoes grown by the many lovely small-scale farmers with which weâ€™re blessed).
And then we visited the lovely mountain region of La Vera in the northerly part of Extremadura and saw firsthand how small-scale growing can be aggregated, scaled, and become ubiquitous and still delicious and fairâ€¦ through the collective model (which of course the olive growers also utilise). La Vera is the most famous pimentÃ³n (Spanish paprika) producing region in Spain (Murcia being the other). Back in 1937 the local growers formed a syndicate, and then in 1938 established a cooperative to reduce competition amongst themselves and to create an entity with a real opportunity for export.
A niche artisanal (arguably non-staple) product like pimentÃ³n can quickly saturate a solely local market, and given it is sold as a dried powder in a tin, it is readily transportable without refrigeration â€“ the perfect product for the age-old spice trade. And witnessing the relatively small-scale fields growing the crops and the old drying sheds where the pimentÃ³n are still taken to be dried and given their irresistible smokiness was heartening â€“ Iâ€™m heading home with 3kg for my chorizo making â€“ happy meatsmith!
But of course cooperatives arenâ€™t all fair to everyone just because theyâ€™re fair to their members. At the recent launch of the Farm Cooperatives and Collaborations Pilot Program in Australia we heard from a number of very large case studies, including CBH, the huge grain cooperative in WA with an annual revenue of over $3 billion that export more than 90% of the grain produced, largely for livestock feed and fuel. We also heard from TSBE in Queensland, a cooperative with $5 billion in revenue that owns feedlots, intensive pig and poultry sheds, and apparently got its start with CSG revenue (food and agriculture are only 15% of their turnover if I noted that correctly).
We ate quite well in Spain â€“ we had ready access to fresh fruit and veg and a variety of interesting Spanish cheeses (such as the lovely, stinky Torta del Casar and the plentiful queso de oveja â€“ curado is much nicer than semicurado) â€“ and made many of our meals in the Slothvan with beautiful views of the wealth of castles that litter the landscape.
The milk was uniformly awful (we could only find UHT, as is the norm for much of Europe sadly), and aside from rare exceptions the bread was mostly terrible. Truck stop food was inspiring â€“ made fresh and with obvious care â€“ there are carnicerÃas in the truck stops (!), and vast deli options for local cheeses as well as the meat offerings. Of course the meat is almost entirely factory farmed, but with artisanal touches in the processingâ€¦ more on all of this later in the jamÃ³n post.
Our time in Spain was too short and research was mostly observational and influenced by combining a learning trip with a family adventure, but driving across its vast, dry landscapes from which water must surely be rung out of stone to produce 50% of the EUâ€™s olive oil was certainly more informative than merely scanning and devouring the menus of its cities as we did in previous lives. While consuming food is a central and critical part of life, focusing purely on taste can too easily get stuck on the aesthetic rather than the ethic, whereas following the chain back to where your food is produced can tell you so much more about the communities who grow it and the quality of what they grow.
Having just been to Slow Food’s Terra Madre and braved the crowds at Salone del Gusto in Torino, I have many more thoughts on the problem of privileging the aesthetic aspects of food over the ethicsâ€¦ as well as on the importance of democracy in the food sovereignty movement to effect real changeâ€¦ but just now the cliffs of Cinque Terre beckon. 😉